The leading text for foundation engineering courses, PRINCIPLES OF FOUNDATION ENGINEERING, 8e maintains a careful balance of current research and practical field applications as it introduces civil engineering students to the fundamental concepts and applications of foundation analysis design. Throughout the book, author Braja M. Das emphasizes the judgment needed to properly apply theories and analysis to the evaluation of soils and foundation design. In addition a wealth of worked out examples and figures show students how to do the work they will be doing as civil engineers, while homework problems at the end of each chapter help them hone their problem-solving skills.
Geotechnical Engineering. Foundation Engineering. General Format of the Text. Design Methods. Numerical Methods in Geotechnical Engineering. References.
PART I: GEOTECHINCAL PROPERTIES AND EXPLORATION OF SOIL.
2. Geotechnical Properties of Soil.
Introduction. Grain-Size Distribution. Size Limits for Soils. Weight-Volume Relationships. Relative Density. Atterberg Limits. Liquidity Index. Activity. Soil Classification Systems. Hydraulic Conductivity of Soil. Steady-State Seepage. Effective Stress. Consolidation. Calculation of Primary Consolidation Settlement. Time Rate of Consolidation. Degree of Consolidation under Ramp Loading. Shear Strength. Unconfined Compression Test. Comments on Friction Angle. Correlations of Undrained Shear Strength. Sensitivity. Problems. References.
3. Natural Soil Deposits and Subsoil Exploration.
Introduction. Natural Soil Deposits. Soil Origin. Residual Soil. Gravity Transported Soil. Alluvial Deposits. Lacustrine Deposits. Glacial Deposits. Aeolian Soil Deposits. Organic Soil. Some Local Terms for Soil. Subsurface Exploration. Purpose of Subsurface Exploration. Subsurface Exploration Program. Exploratory Borings in the Field. Procedures for Sampling Soil. Split-Spoon Sampling. Sampling with a Scraper Bucket. Sampling with a Thin-Walled Tube. Sampling with a Piston Sampler. Observation of Water Tables. Vane Shear Test. Cone Penetration Test. Pressuremeter Test (PMT). Dilatometer Test. Iowa Borehole Shear Test. Kₒ Stepped-Blade Test. Coring of Rocks. Preparation of Boring Logs. Geophysical Exploration. Subsoil Exploration Report. Problems. References.
PART II: FOUNDATION ANALYSIS.
4. Shallow Foundations: Ultimate Bearing Capacity.
Introduction. General Concept. Terzaghi’s Bearing Capacity Theory. Factor of Safety. Modification of Bearing Capacity Equations for Water Table. The General Bearing Capacity Equation. Other Solutions for Bearing Capacity Factor (Ny), Shape and Depth Factors. Case Studies on Ultimate Bearing Capacity. Effect of Soil Compressibility. Eccentrically Loaded Foundations. Ultimate Bearing Capacity under Eccentric Loading--One-Way Eccentricity. Bearing Capacity--Two-Way Eccentricity. Bearing Capacity of a Continuous Foundation Subjected to Eccentrically Inclined Loading. Problems. References.
5. Ultimate Bearing Capacity of Shallow Foundations: Special Cases.
Introduction. Foundation Supported by a Soil with a Rigid Base at a Shallow Depth. Foundations on Layered Clay. Bearing Capacity of Layered Soils: Stronger Soil Underlain by Weaker Soil. Bearing Capacity of Layered Soils: Weaker Soils Underlain by Stronger Soils. Continuous Foundation on Weak Clay with a Granular Trench. Closely Spaced Foundations--Effect on Ultimate Bearing Capacity. Bearing Capacity of Foundations on Top of a Slope. Bearing Capacity of Foundations on a Slope. Seismic Bearing Capacity and Settlement in Granular Soil. Foundations on Rock. Uplift Capacity of Foundations. Problems. References.
6. Vertical Stress Increase in Soil.
Introduction. Stress Due to a Concentrated Load. Stress Due to a Circularly Loaded Area. Stress Due to a Line Load. Stress Below a Vertical Strip Load (Finite Width and Infinite Length). Stress below a Rectangular Area. Stress Isobars. Average Vertical Stress Increase Due to a Rectangularly Loaded Area. Average Vertical Stress Increase below the Center of a Circularly Loaded Area. Stress Increase under an Embankment. Westergaard’s Solution for Vertical Stress Due to a Point Load. Problems. References.
7. Settlement of Shallow Foundation.
Introduction. Elastic Settlement of Foundation on Saturated Clay. Elastic Settlement. Settlement Based on the Theory of Elasticity. Improved Equation for Elastic Settlement, Settlement of Sandy Soil: Use of Strain Influence Factor. Settlement of Foundation on Sand Based on Standard Penetration Resistance. Settlement in Granular Soil Based on Pressuremeter (PMT). Effect of the Rise of Ground Water Table on Elastic Settlement. Consolidation Settlement. Primary Consolidation Settlement Relationships. Three-Dimensional Effect on Primary Consolidation Settlement. Settlement Due to Secondary Consolidation. Field Load Test. Presumptive Bearing Capacity. Tolerable Settlement of Buildings. Problems. References.
8. Mat Foundations.
Introduction. Combined Footings. Common Types of Mat Foundations. Bearing Capacity of Mat Foundations. Differential Settlement of Mats. Field Settlement Observations for Mat Foundations. Compensated Foundation. Structural Design of Mat Foundations. Problems. References.
9. Pile Foundations.
Introduction. Types of Piles and Their Structural Characteristics. Continuous Flight of Auger Pile. Estimating Pile Length. Installation of Piles. Load Transfer Mechanism. Equations for Estimating Pile Capacity. Meyerhof’s Method for Estimating Qp. Vesic’s Method For Estimating Qp. Coyle and Castello’s Method for Estimating Qp in Sand. Correlations for Calculating Qp with SPT and CPT Results in Granular Soil. Frictionless Resistance (Qs) in Sand. Frictional (Skin) Resistance in Clay. Ultimate Capacity of Continuous Flight Auger Pile. Point Bearing Capacity of Piles Resting on Rock. Pile Load Tests. Elastic Settlement of Piles. Laterally Loaded Piles. Pile-Driving Formulas. Pile Capacity for Vibration-Driven Piles. Wave Equation Analysis. Negative Skin Friction. Group Piles. Group Efficiency. Ultimate Capacity of Group Piles in Saturated Clay. Elastic Settlement of Group Piles. Consolidation Settlement of Group Piles. Piles in Rock. Problems. References.
10. Drilled-Shaft Foundations.
Introduction. Types of Drilled Shafts. Construction Procedures. Other Design Considerations. Load Transfer Mechanism. Estimation of Load-Bearing Capacity. Drilled Shafts in Granular Soil: Load-Bearing Capacity. Load-Bearing Capacity Based on Settlement. Drilled Shafts in Clay: Load-Bearing Capacity. Load-Bearing Capacity Based on Settlement. Settlement of Drilled Shafts at Working Load. Lateral Load-Carrying Capacity Characteristic Load and Moment Method. Drilled Shafts Extending into Rock. Problems. References.
11. Foundations on Difficult Soil.
Introduction. Collapsible Soils. Definition and Types of Collapsible Soils. Physical Parameters for Identification. Procedure for Calculating Collapse Settlement, Foundation Design in Soils Not Susceptible to Wetting. Foundation Design in Soils Susceptible to Wetting. Expansive Soils. General Nature of Expansive Soils. Unrestrained Swell Test. Swelling Pressure Test. Classification of Expansive Soil on the Basis of Index Tests. Foundation Considerations for Expansive Soils. Construction on Expansive Soils. Sanitary Landfills. General Nature of Sanitary Landfills. Settlement of Sanitary Landfills. Problems. References.
PART III: LATERAL EARTH PRESSURE AND EARTH-RETAINING STRUCTURES.
12. Lateral Earth Pressure.
Introduction. Lateral Earth Pressure at Rest. Active Pressure. Rankine Active Earth Pressure. A Generalized Case for Rankine Active Pressure Granular Backfill. Rankine Active Pressure with Vertical Wall Back Face and Inclined C-0 Backfill. Coulomb’s Active Earth Pressure. Lateral Earth Pressure due to Surcharge. Active Earth Pressure for Earthquake Conditions (Granular Backfill). Active Earth Pressure for Earthquake Conditions (Vertical Back Face of Wall and C-) Backfill). Passive Pressure. Rankine Passive Earth Pressure. Rankine Passive Earth Pressure (Vertical Back Face and Inclined Backfill). Coulomb’s Passive Earth Pressure. Comments on the Failure Surface Assumption for Cuolomb’s Pressure Calculations. Caquot and Kerisel’s Solution for Passive Earth Pressure (Granular Backfill). Passive Pressure under Earthquake Conditions. Problems. References.
13. Retaining Walls.
Introduction. Gravity and Cantilever Walls. Proportioning Retaining Walls. Application of Lateral Earth Pressure Theories to Design. Stability of Retaining Walls. Check for Overturning. Check for Sliding along the Base. Check for Bearing Capacity Failure. Construction Joints and Drainage from Backfill. Comments on Design of Retaining Walls and a Case Study. Mechanically Stabilized Retaining Walls. Soil Reinforcement. Considerations in Soil Reinforcement. General Design Considerations. Retaining Walls with Metallic Strip Reinforcement. Step-by-Step-Design Procedure Using Metallic Strip Reinforcement. Retaining Walls with Geotextile Reinforcement. Retaining Walls with Georigid Reinforcement-General. Design Procedure for Georigid-Reinforced Retaining Wall. Problems. References.
14. Sheet Pile Walls.
Introduction. Construction Methods. Cantilever Sheet Pile Walls. Cantilever Sheet Piling Penetrating Sandy Soils. Special Cases for Cantilever Walls Penetrating a Sandy Soil. Cantilever Sheet Piling Penetrating Clay. Special Cases for Cantilever Walls Penetrating Clay. Anchored Sheet-Pile Walls. Free Earth Support Method for Penetration of Sandy Soil. Design Charts for Free Earth Support Method (Penetration into Sandy Soil). Moment Reduction for Anchored Sheet-Pile Walls. Computational Pressure Diagram Method for Penetration into Sandy Soil. Field Observations for Anchor Sheet Pile Walls. Free Earth Support Method for Penetration of Clay 482. Anchors. Holding Capacity of Anchor Plates in Sand. Holding Capacity of Anchor Plates in Clay (c-Φ Condition). Ultimate Resistance of Tiebacks. Problems. References.
15. Braced Cuts.
Introduction. Braced Cut Analysis Based on General Wedge Theory. Pressure Envelope for Braced Cut Design. Pressure Envelope for Cuts in Layered Soil. Design of Various Components of a Braced Cut. Case Studies of Braced Cuts. Bottom Heave of a Cut in Clay. Stability of the Bottom of a Cut in Sand. Lateral Yielding of Sheet Piles and Ground Settlement. Problems. References.
PART IV: SOIL IMPROVEMENT AND GROUND MODIFICATION.
16. Soil Improvement and Ground Modification.
Introduction. General Principles of Compaction. Empirical Relationships for Compaction. Field Compaction. Compaction Control for Clay Hydraulic Barriers. Vibroflotation. Blasting, Precompression. Sand Drains. Prefabricated Vertical Drains. Lime Stabilization. Cement Stabilization. Fly-Ash Stabilization. Stone Columns. Sand Compaction Piles. Dynamic Compaction. Jet Grouting. Deep Mixing. Problems. References.
Appendix A: Reinforced Concrete Design of Shallow Foundations.
Fundamentals of Reinforced Concrete Design. Reinforcing Bars. Development Length. Design Example of a Continuous Wall Foundation. Design Example of a Square Foundation for a Column. Design Example of a Rectangular Foundation for a Column. References.
Answers to Problems.
◎ Braja M. Das
Dr. Braja Das is Dean Emeritus of the College of Engineering and Computer Science at California State University, Sacramento. He received his M.S. in Civil Engineering from the University of Iowa and his Ph.D. in Geotechnical Engineering from the University of Wisconsin. He is the author of a number of geotechnical engineering texts and reference books and more than 250 technical papers in the area of geotechnical engineering. His primary areas of research include shallow foundations, earth anchors, and geosynthetics. Dr. Das is a Fellow and Life Member of the American Society of Civil Engineers, Life Member of the American Society for Engineering Education, and an Emeritus Member of the Chemical and Mechanical Stabilization Committee of the Transportation Research Board of the National Research Council (Washington D.C.). He has received numerous awards for teaching excellence, including the AMOCO Foundation Award, the AT&T Award for Teaching Excellence from the American Society for Engineering Education, the Ralph Teetor Award from the Society of Automotive Engineers, and the Distinguished Achievement Award for Teaching Excellence from the University of Texas at El Paso.